CFDG proposes improvements to charity annual reports

first_imgThese include:That consideration should be given to include a value for volunteer time in the SOFA.Management and administration costs should be called ‘governance’ costs or similar, with the term defined to make it clear what sort of costs should be included, and sufficient detail provided to explain all cost allocations. Allocation policies relating to fundraising activity, themselves based on clearer definitions as to what constitutes fundraised income, should be determined in advance of the year-end and be approved by the trustees before they are applied. CFDG is now asking its members and other interested parties what they think of the proposals, and whether they will lead to more meaningful financial ratios. It is also anticipated that the Report will contribute to the next annual SORP review. CFDG Vice Chairman, Les Jones OBE (Deputy Chief Executive at WWF) said: “The issue of the use of financial information to compare charities is inevitable and whilst there are many limitations to any such comparison it is clearly going to happen. CFDG are therefore keen to ensure that the financial information provides enough of the right data to assist in this process. We will not be able to move on to meaningful comparisons until we are sure that we have got right the consistency and acceptance of fundamental principles of accounting for the inputs. This will in turn assist with the all important measurement of outputs, outcomes and impacts.” Tagged with: Finance Giving/Philanthropy Management Howard Lake | 11 November 2003 | News The Charity Finance Directors’ Group has launched a range of proposals for consultation that they hope will improve the quality and consistency of charity annual reports.The CFDG’s aim is to improve charity reporting so the public will know exactly how their money is being spent.The group has today published a report, “Inputs Matter: Improving the Quality of Reporting in the Charity Sector,” in which it sets out plans to tighten the definitions used in charity accounting. Funded by the Lloyds TSB Foundation, the report contains a number wide-ranging and, the CFDG accepts, controversial recommendations in relation to Support, Management and Administration Costs, Fundraising Costs and the Valuing of Volunteers. Advertisement  65 total views,  3 views today AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThiscenter_img AddThis Sharing ButtonsShare to TwitterTwitterShare to FacebookFacebookShare to LinkedInLinkedInShare to EmailEmailShare to WhatsAppWhatsAppShare to MessengerMessengerShare to MoreAddThis CFDG proposes improvements to charity annual reports About Howard Lake Howard Lake is a digital fundraising entrepreneur. Publisher of UK Fundraising, the world’s first web resource for professional fundraisers, since 1994. Trainer and consultant in digital fundraising. Founder of Fundraising Camp and co-founder of Researching massive growth in giving.last_img read more

Victory as federal supreme court repeals dictatorship era press law

first_img Organisation News BrazilAmericas Follow the news on Brazil April 27, 2021 Find out more Receive email alerts RSF begins research into mechanisms for protecting journalists in Latin America Alarm after two journalists murdered in Brazil Reports BrazilAmericas 2011-2020: A study of journalist murders in Latin America confirms the importance of strengthening protection policiescenter_img Help by sharing this information May 13, 2009 – Updated on January 20, 2016 Victory as federal supreme court repeals dictatorship era press law News RSF_en to go further Reporters Without Borders today saluted as a “great victory for press freedom” the historic decision of the Federal Supreme Court (STF) to repeal the entire 1967 press law that had allowed prison sentences to be handed down to journalists for what they wrote.The worldwide press freedom organisation said the decision was even more welcome coming as it did just before World Press Freedom day on 3 May.The country’s highest jurisdiction voted yesterday by seven votes to four to sweep away the repressive law which had been adopted under the 1964-1985 military dictatorship. Federal deputy Miro Teixeira was behind the 2007 call on the STF to revoke the 9 February 1967 law that provided for prison sentences for press offences. The court had on 27 February 2008 suspended on an initial six-month basis – that was extended the following September – the application of 20 of the 70 articles of the law. These were the most repressive ones relating to “defamation, “insult”, and “denigration, all of which meant an increase of sentences already under laid down under criminal law.“The 1967 press law continued to be used for a long time after the return of democracy in 1985 as a means of applying pressure or reprisals against journalists,” the press freedom organisation said.“The 1967 law was also in conflict with the principles enshrined in the 1988 democratic constitution. This judicial absurdity had to be resolved. This law moreover had the avowed intention of gagging the press by increasing sentences laid down under the criminal law for some offences of opinion”, it said.With the total repealing of this law, the rule of law has now triumphed against the ‘dark years’, making it a victory for democracy”, the organisation concludedIt was the articles made void by the 1988 Constitution that fuelled most the debate. Some judges on the STF wanted to keep them for use in “protection of private life, and for people’s reputation and image”. A further legal wrangle centred on the right of reply which was part of the 1967 law. The judges who backed repealing the entire legislation pointed out that this right was already guaranteed under earlier 1923 legislation and the Article 5 of the constitution. Miro Teixeira who set the legal ball rolling had argued that “no law should ever be able to influence the content of news”. The doyen of the STF judges, Celso de Mello, picked up the same theme at the end of the debate, saying, “Nothing is more harmful and dangerous than the state seeking to regulate freedom of expression and freedom of thought”. News April 15, 2021 Find out more May 13, 2021 Find out morelast_img read more

Working families in Limerick caught in homelessness trap

first_imgLimerick Ladies National Football League opener to be streamed live Cllr Maurice Quinlivan outside some of the abandoned local authority houses in BallynantyWITH 4,203 people currently on the housing list in Limerick city and county, working families are now more at risk of becoming homeless.The number of people looking for local authority housing in the metropolitan area is 3,336 compared to 2,208 on the old city council housing list back in March of this year.Sign up for the weekly Limerick Post newsletter Sign Up Novas Initiatives, the largest provider of homeless services in the Mid-West region, has also revealed that the number of people, particularly families, availing of its services has increased. The Limerick-based charity says that many of these families had never previously accessed such support services but are finding it difficult to secure appropriate accommodation in the private rented market or are struggling to meet mortgage repayments.“In the last two years, referrals to our Intensive Family Support (IFS) service have risen by 236 per cent, with a waiting list of families every month. In August, the IFS worked with 86 children, some of whom were already homeless but the majority at risk of becoming so,” said Limerick head of homeless services at Novas Initiatives, Anne Cronin.“The problem is becoming increasingly grave as the pool of private rented and social housing continues to diminish at a time when the number of families in need of assistance is growing,” she added.According to Sinn Féin councillor Maurice Quinlivan, the amount of people who are working and unable to purchase or rent privately is becoming more apparent than ever. He believes that there is virtually no chance of any of them getting housed without government intervention.“A significant number of these hard working people are being refused their application to join the list as they are deemed to be adequately housed. Many families are also unable to continue their mortgages repayments and are now looking for assistance to get housed,” he explained.He went on to cite cuts to the capital budget for housing, a virtual halt in the construction of Council housing stock as well as the demolition of regeneration houses without new ones being built to replace them, as catalysts for the current situation.He believes that a long term plan to fund the consistent renewal of social housing as a well as a Government commitment to release investment funds for local authority housing is urgently needed.“This is the only way to tackle housing need, homelessness, and extortionate rents. This will also create employment,” he concluded. Advertisement Linkedin Email Twitter NewsLocal NewsWorking families in Limerick caught in homelessness trapBy Alan Jacques – October 2, 2014 1270 Facebook Limerick Artist ‘Willzee’ releases new Music Video – “A Dream of Peace” Printcenter_img Previous article‘Peanuts’ property tax cut for Limerick householdersNext articleGround control to LIT Alan Jacques RELATED ARTICLESMORE FROM AUTHOR Predictions on the future of learning discussed at Limerick Lifelong Learning Festival Vanishing Ireland podcast documenting interviews with people over 70’s, looking for volunteers to share their stories TAGSAlan JacquesCllr Maurice QuinlivanhomelesshomelessnesslimerickNovas InitiativesSinn Fein WhatsApp WATCH: “Everyone is fighting so hard to get on” – Pat Ryan on competitive camogie squads Limerick’s National Camogie League double header to be streamed live last_img read more

With Kobe Bryant and Michael Jordan behind him, can LeBron James catch Kareem on all-time scoring list?

first_imgBack in 2017, LeBron James told Bleacher Report’s Howard Beck he is “not a scorer” after he became the NBA’s playoff scoring king.”I’ve worked too hard in my career to have that label, from the beginning,” James said. “I want the right play, I’ve always loved the success of my teammates — and so, I’m not a scorer.” At 35, LeBron James i has the Lakers in 1st and is a legit MVP candidate. His passing is particularly awesome this year. Full story at ESPN.comA post shared by Kirk Goldsberry (@kirkgoldsberry) on Jan 24, 2020 at 11:17am PSTAny slides in speed and explosiveness will only bring James down from an elite athlete to a good one. He should be able to offset that with his basketball IQ and skill, particularly with his post-up game. James has been almost exactly as efficient on post-ups as Davis this season, though he doesn’t currently operate down low that frequently.Could James transform into a better-passing Karl Malone, who is second on the scoring list? Would he dedicate an entire summer to making himself a spot-up shooter from the corners? Nothing really feels out of bounds with James. He is on pace to lead the league in assists for the first time. It’s Year 17. That’s crazy. View this post on Instagram Fast forward to 2020, and James is both right and wrong. He is arguably the most gifted facilitator the NBA has ever seen. He just also happens to be one of the most dominant scorers in basketball history.MORE: LeBron’s best performance of the decade won’t be remembered properlyWith a layup in the third quarter of the Lakers’ game against the 76ers, James passed Kobe Bryant for third place on the league’s all-time scoring list. This latest achievement in James’ illustrious career comes nearly one full year after he jumped over Michael Jordan.LeBron James gets to the bucket to move up to 3rd on the all-time scoring list!— NBA (@NBA) January 26, 2020Prior to Saturday night’s contest, James was scoring 25.2 points per game, marking the 16th consecutive season in which he has averaged at least 25 points. (He “only” posted 20.9 points per game his rookie year in Cleveland.) He continues to play at an MVP level despite turning 35 years old in December, and that consistency brings up one big question:Can LeBron eventually surpass Kareem Abdul-Jabbar and become the NBA’s all-time leading scorer?RankPlayerCareer points1.Kareem Abdul-Jabbar38,3872.Karl Malone36,9283.LeBron James33,6554.Kobe Bryant33,6435.Michael Jordan32,292A record that once seemed unbreakable is now within striking distance. James is 4,732 points short of Abdul-Jabbar’s total. Since being drafted in 2003, James has averaged roughly 2,000 points per season, which means 2 1/2 seasons of typical LeBron would push him ahead of Kareem.Even accounting for a dip in performance — maybe Father Time finally catches up with him, or Anthony Davis emerges as a 30-point-per-game guy — James would still be in good position. If he drops to 20 points per game, he could reach Abdul-Jabbar in three-plus seasons. That sounds farfetched on the surface, but Abdul-Jabbar scored 23.4 points per game in his Age 38 season.It’s not unreasonable to expect James to transition smoothly into a secondary scorer as he moves closer to 40. He remains an unstoppable force in the paint, but he has adapted to the modern game by reducing his reliance on the midrange and increasing his 3-point attempts to a career-high 6.0 per game.  Health will be a factor, of course. Both James and Abdul-Jabbar are aliens in that sense. Kareem played in at least 62 games in every season of his career from 1969-89. LeBron was on a similar trajectory until a groin injury limited him to 55 games in 2018-19. It’s also important to keep in mind James has an additional 239 playoff games on his body — his 10,049 playoff minutes are by far the most in league history.That groin strain could be a blip on the radar. James takes better care of himself than any athlete on the planet. ESPN’s Brian Windhorst reported in 2018 that James spends seven figures annually to maintain his body, so if anyone can stretch out those final years, it’s No. 23 for the Lakers.James might not want to be called a scorer, but by the time he retires, he may not have a choice.last_img read more

International trio target team title in Portgual

first_img Internationals Gemma Clews, Sophie Lamb and Inci Mehmet will represent England in the Nations Cup at the Portuguese women’s amateur championship. The 72-hole championship will be played at the Montado Golf Resort from 27-30 January, with the Nations Cup team event being decided over the first three rounds. All three players were members of England’s winning team at the 2015 women’s Home Internationals. The players: Gemma Clews, 21, (Delamere Forest) had top ten finishes in last year’s English women’s amateur and the Scottish and Irish stroke play championships. She tied 20th in the European Amateur and represented GB&I in the Vagliano Trophy. She helped England win the first mixed international against Spain. Sophie Lamb, 18, (Clitheroe) was runner-up in the England Golf girls’ order of merit for 2015 and sixth on the women’s table. She was also runner-up in the ANNIKA Invitational Europe 2015 in Sweden; tied eighth in the British stroke play and was fifth in both the English girls’ and English women’s championships. Inci Mehmet, 19, (Royal Mid-Surrey) had top ten finishes in the 2015 World Girls’ Championship as well as in the English, Irish and Scottish women’s stroke play championships and in this year’s South Atlantic Women’s Amateur. She helped England win the team trophy at the 2015 British stroke play. (Image © Leaderboard Photography). 20 Jan 2016 International trio target team title in Portgual last_img read more

In-form Malditas go for World Cup berth

first_imgLATEST STORIES Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. The Philippines takes the first of two cracks at a Women’s World Cup berth when the Malditas battle a powerhouse China side on Monday night in the AFC Women’s Asian Cup at Amman International Stadium in Jordan.Coming off a stunning 2-1 win over Jordan on Saturday, the Malditas are looking to clinch a semifinal berth in the eight-team tournament that will also give them a first-ever Women’s World Cup spot in France.ADVERTISEMENT Nadine Lustre’s phone stolen in Brazil MOST READ P16.5-M worth of aid provided for Taal Volcano eruption victims — NDRRMC “I believe qualification will be achieved against Thailand and not against China,” said Benlarbi.If they finish third, the Malditas still have a chance as they battle the third placer in Group B.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next Lights inside SMX hall flicker as Duterte rants vs Ayala, Pangilinan anew With five spots allotted to Asia for the World Cup, the Malditas gave themselves the inside track to make the prestigious event after the victory over Jordan.But they will be the underdogs against the Chinese, who posted an emphatic 4-0 win over Thailand in their first game in Group A.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSGinebra beats Meralco again to capture PBA Governors’ Cup titleSPORTSAfter winning title, time for LA Tenorio to give back to Batangas folkSPORTSTim Cone, Ginebra set their sights on elusive All-Filipino crownIf the Malditas are unable to pick up at least a point against the Chinese, their clash against the Thais on Tuesday could determine their fate.Malditas’ French coach Rabah Benlarbi plans to rest some of his key players against China. Jo Koy draws ire for cutting through Cebu City traffic with ‘wang-wang’center_img View comments Judy Ann’s 1st project for 2020 is giving her a ‘stomachache’ Truck driver killed in Davao del Sur road accident Green group flags ‘overkill’ use of plastic banderitas in Manila Sto. Niño feast Thais clinch Davis Cup tie Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard PLAY LIST 02:14Carpio hits red carpet treatment for China Coast Guard02:56NCRPO pledges to donate P3.5 million to victims of Taal eruption00:56Heavy rain brings some relief in Australia02:37Calm moments allow Taal folks some respite03:23Negosyo sa Tagaytay City, bagsak sa pag-aalboroto ng Bulkang Taal01:13Christian Standhardinger wins PBA Best Player award Jiro Manio arrested for stabbing man in Marikina Scientists seek rare species survivors amid Australia flameslast_img read more

Dowie says he was fall guy

first_img AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORE11 theater productions to see in Southern California this week, Dec. 27-Jan. 2“I don’t think I’m responsible,” he said. I’m not repentant; I’m not sure what I’d repent for.” “I didn’t litter, I hadn’t had a ticket … I joined the Marines out of high school because I felt it was my responsibility. I never had any doubt I was on the right side and then one day you’re in this Kafkaesque nightmare.” Convicted at trial along with Dowie was his assistant, John Stodder, 50, of Palos Verdes Estates. Another top assistant, Steve Sugerman, a former deputy mayor in the Riordan administration who now has his own P.R. firm in the city, pleaded guilty to wire fraud and was a key witness at the trial. Wearing a dark suit with a handkerchief neatly folded in the pocket and a yellow tie, Dowie said his highly visible position as the head of a prominent and politically connected firm made him vulnerable to dishonest employees and a company that wouldn’t protect him once accusations of wrongdoing surfaced. “It was the most enormous squeeze in the world,” Dowie said. “Once they decide who to blame, everyone plays their role … Someone has to be in the middle; someone has to take the fall. There’s a former Marine, an ex-editor who was profiled in Los Angeles Magazine … there’s a good one.” Breaking his two-year silence, former Fleishman-Hillard public relations executive Doug Dowie says he’s a fall guy in an investigation of Los Angeles City Hall corruption that failed to net a single public official. Dowie, a key adviser and insider in Mayor James Hahn’s administration, was convicted May 16 by a federal court jury on 15 counts of conspiracy and wire fraud in a scheme that involved overbilling the Department of Water and Power, the Port of Los Angeles, the Worldwide Church of God and architect Frank Gehry’s firm for his services. While he offered no defense at trial, Dowie, 58, a longtime West Hills resident, agreed to be interviewed by two of his former reporters when he was an editor at the Daily News from 1985 to 1990. The interview Thursday, which he described as “therapeutic,” was conducted at the Pacific Dining Car in downtown Los Angeles, a favorite haunt of Dowie’s, and one that is a regular meeting place for the city’s political elite. While Dowie intends a lengthy appeal of the verdict in the case, his failure to accept responsibility could backfire at sentencing with no-nonsense U.S. District Judge Gary Allen Feess, said Laurie Levenson, a former federal prosecutor and Loyola Law School professor. “At sentencing, the courts give you a break for accepting responsibility,” Levenson said. “You usually get more credit for taking responsibility than blaming others. (Judge) Feess is really a straightforward judge and expects defendants to be so as well.” The charges grew out of the lengthy “pay-to-play” investigation of allegations contractors were being pressured to make political contributions. The probe remains open officially but the only charges brought involve the $300,000 in overbilling of the DWP, the port, and the other two clients hired by Fleishman-Hillard. Dowie said his relationship to Hahn’s aides, specifically former Deputy Mayor Troy Edwards, and the pro bono work done on Hahn’s behalf were unrelated to the company winning millions of dollars in city contracts. There was no private understanding with anyone in the Mayor’s Office with regard to the DWP billings or contract, he said. He said a “synergy” did develop and that Edwards, and Hahn’s Chief of Staff Tim McOsker would call for advice or perspective on city – but not political – matters, and that Fleishman-Hillard did raise funds or contribute to Hahn, as well as his campaign against San Fernando Valley cityhood. But such a close involvement was the way the City Hall system worked and he had contributed to City Controller Laura Chick’s campaign and given free advice to her until their friendship fell apart when her investigation of the $3-million-a-year DWP contract led to a “perfect storm” swirling around Fleishman-Hillard, Dowie said. At no time, he said, was his firm’s free work for Hahn, L.A.’s Best and a citywide book-reading campaign billed to DWP accounts. Dowie said he was never offered anything by the government, a team led by Assistant U.S. Attorney Adam Kamenstein, for information regarding pay-to-play, or other matters. “I didn’t have anything.” Kamenstein said, “The verdict speaks for itself. The evidence more than supported the charges against him and the jury agreed.” Dominick Rubalcava, a Dowie friend who served as president of the DWP’s board of commissioners for Hahn, called Fleishman-Hillard’s work “first class.” “They did what they were hired for,” Rubalcava said. “Given what has happened with these charges being proved, it’s a terrible disappointment.” Now living in an apartment in Westwood, Dowie said he believed his high-powered team of Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher lawyers provided aggressive cross-examination of witnesses, including addressing issues raised in a Jan. 6, 2003 e-mail string that included him asking Stodder how much they could “pad” the DWP account and whether it could take as much as $30,000 – an e-mail jurors cited as helping seal their decision. “Will I to my dying day regret using `pad’ for `add?’ Of course I will,” Dowie said, insisting the e-mail was taken out of context out of more than 1 million messages and without regard for all the conversations going on at that time. “If I’d planned to do something (improper), let alone illegal, I wouldn’t … send it around the world.” In retrospect, he said he wishes he would have launched a full-fledged investigation or called the cops when an account executive, Fred Muir, a former Los Angeles Times reporter and editor, in October 2003 made allegations of fraudulent billings after Dowie upbraided him for taking clients to his new firm. “Fred Muir’s charge was an insult,” Dowie said. “We weren’t a bunch of guys sitting around a shack doing something wrong.” Dowie said he trusted his employees “enormously,” and that in some cases while they “clearly were being dishonest,” they might not have felt they were until they were caught “in this nightmare.” He said Fleishman-Hillard’s billing system was such that it made writing up the bills easy: “It’s like having a kid in a grocery store punch in for you.” And since the company billed the DWP about $25 million over the life of the contracts, he said the magnitude of the employees’ dishonesty if they just added a few thousand dollars was “like someone swiping half-and-half out of the refrigerator in the office kitchen.” Sometimes he drove his employees too hard, he says. “Clearly there are people who worked for me over the last 30 years who didn’t like my style and I feel bad about it. I never meant to belittle anyone, or hurt anyone’s feelings.” Dowie’s conviction makes it unlikely he will be able to revive his wrongful dismissal suit against Fleishman-Hillard – the St. Louis-based company he feels betrayed him to protect the firm. A federal judge already has tentatively ruled against him. “In the Marines we never let our dead stay on the battlefield; at Fleishman-Hillard they walked around the battlefield and shot their wounded.” Richard S. Kline, the firm’s general manager in Los Angeles said Dowie was treated “more than fairly and completely appropriately.” “The judgment of the court speaks for itself.” Asked about the prospects of prison, Dowie said he’s not scared of it, hardened by Marine training at Parris Island, S.C., and a 13-month tour in Vietnam during the war. He said he’d be “at a loss” to explain why he was in prison. “I don’t know what I’d tell my cellmate … that I made money to send to St. Louis so they could stab me in the back and then (cooperate) with the U.S. attorney? I’d be the most stupid guy in the chow line.” Overall, he remains proud of the work he did as a journalist, and as a P.R. man; proud of his decisiveness and fearlessness in the face of confrontation, adding no one testified the job he and the company did wasn’t “superb.” “I was a star up to the day I wasn’t a star at Fleishman-Hillard.” [email protected] (818) 713-3731160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img

Stationery company boss Bernie pencils in her 50th birthday – Pic Special!

first_imgThe craic was good and the laughter aplenty as popular Letterkenny woman Bernie Lapsley celebrated her 50th birthday with family and friends at McCafferty’s Bar.Bernie is the popular driving force behind the Donegal Stationery Company at Lower Main Street.No problem is ever too big for Bernie in her local community and she is also a popular member of Glenswilly GAA Club. She was supported as always by her lovely family including hubby Paul and children Katie and John as well as her extended family.Brian McDaid was there on the night to capture the happy occasion.Edie Birrell, Gareth Hannigan and Rory GallenDenis Curran Patrick O’ Friel and Eamon McMenaminDenis Curran Patrick O’ Friel and Eamon McMenaminPatrick and Anne Mc Monagle at Bernie Lapsley PartyJohn and B O’Friel at the celebrationsLabhoise Maguire ,Katie and Bernie Lapsley and Claire McGinley.Glenswilly friends with Bernie Lapsley at the her 50th Birthday on Saturday night.Deridre Fray, Anne Marie Gallagher and Anne O Brien with Bernie Lapsley.Una Kelly, Bernie Lapsley, Deride Graham and Angela GrieveBernie Lapsley picture with her sister’s family including Siobhan and her family Edene, Alan, Emily Eleanor and Jonathan and Gray.Bernie pictured with all her nieces and nephews at her 50th party in Mc Cafferty’s at the weekend.Bernie with staff past and present at Donegal Stationary including Eileen Bradley, Veronica Gormley, and Una Kelly back row from left, Ita Daly, Martin Frize, Gerard Hannigan Deirdre Deveney and Angela Grieve.Bernie with staff past and present at Donegal Stationary including Eileen Bradley, Veronica Gormley, and Una Kelly back row from left, Ita Daly, Martin Frize, Gerard Hannigan Deirdre Deveney and Angela Grieve.Bernie Lapsley pictured with her family celebrating her 50th Birthday. Pictured from left, Mary, Bernie and her mother Nora, back row, Patrick, Siobhan, Louise and Denis. Photo Brian McDaid.Bernie Lapsley with her husband Paul daughter Katie and son John at the party celebrations.Ray Birrell, Annemare Gallagher and Tara CurranStationery company boss Bernie pencils in her 50th birthday – Pic Special! was last modified: November 18th, 2019 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Quality Control Ensures Accurate Cell Division

first_imgCell division (mitosis) is a very complex process in which every part must be accurately duplicated and sent to the proper destination.  Picture a marching band where each flute player or tuba player is able to clone itself.  The players congregate at the center in two lines, divide, and move apart, forming two marching bands that can each play independently or as part of a parade of bands.  A more realistic picture might require imagining the whole school – library, shop, offices and all – splitting into two identical copies in a matter of hours or minutes.    How does the cell make sure that each copy is identical?  Accurate copying is essential, or else errors would accumulate and bring the species to an end.  Scientists continue to uncover some of the quality-control policies and procedural tricks that cells follow.A nine in time saves stitch:  Centrosomes control the orientation of chromosomes before the split.  They create a spindle of microtubules that line the pairs up at the midplane, then pull them apart.  Within the centrosomes are two motors called centrioles, oriented perpendicular to one another, that look for all the world like turbines.  The blades of the turbine are microtubules with spokes, forming a cylinder that looks like a pie with exactly nine slices.  Why nine, and only nine?    Wallace Marshall (UC San Francisco) reviewed experiments into the mechanical basis for nine-ness in centrioles, and published a report in Current Biology.1  Experiments with mutants show that the number is controlled by the length of the spokes that emanate from each slice.  This sets the overall diameter of the centriole, and thus the number of pie slices that will fit in the cylinder.    “This study provides an interesting geometrical mechanism by which a length can control a number,” Marshall said.  Why was the research worthwhile?  “Understanding centriole assembly is likely to reveal many more engineering-design principles that cells use to build complex structures.”Herding the chromosomes:  When a chromosome pair lines up on the spindle midplane right before splitting up, it contains a structure at the waistband called a centromere.  This belt of protein contains two attachment points, called kinetochores, used by microtubules to pull them into their respective daughter cells.  Our 03/04/2004 entry used the analogy of cowboys lassoing pairs of cattle and pulling them into separate corrals.  The yoke holding each pair of cows together is the centromere, and the kinetochores are like saddle horns the ropes can latch onto.  Opposing cowboys lasso the horns and start pulling in opposite directions.  When all pairs are lined up and accounted for, a foreman named aurora B kinase breaks the yokes, and the cowboys haul in their herds.    The geometry of the centromere is essential for keeping this process error-free, a team from New York and Moscow reported in Nature last month.2  Once in awhile, two cowboys on the same side lasso the same pair (this is called syntelic attachment).  Unless corrected, one cell would get both chromosomes and the other would get neither; this “non-disjunction” fault could lead to genetic disorders or cancer.  Scientists had previously thought that detaching one rope (microtubule) would make the saddle horn (kinetochore) automatically spring back into position for a rope from the other side.  It’s apparently not as simple as that.  More quality-control mechanisms are involved.  “Achieving chromosome bi-orientation depends on a complex interplay between mechanisms intrinsic to the centromere and those that act externally,” they said.  After cross-attachment fibers are released, and after the lassos are disconnected, there are intrinsic properties of the centromere that come into play.  “Our findings imply that mechanical properties and the shape of the centromere play an important part in the fidelity of chromosome segregation.”  Unless everything works, the operation usually aborts.  Security engineers might call this an example of the principle of defense in depth.Pinch me:  Perhaps you’ve watched movies of dividing cells, and noticed how they pinch off from each other, as if someone tied a string around a soft balloon and pulled it tight.  Since no person is around at the cell level to do this task manually, there must be an automatic molecular mechanism that makes it work.  What forms the “contractile ring” and reels it in?    An article in Science Daily described work by scientists from Yale, Columbia and Lehigh to figure out what happens.  Cells employ the same molecular motors, actin and myosin, that make muscles work.  Actin filaments with attached myosin motors assemble along the inner cell membrane at the dividing plane, and go through a “search, capture, pull and release” operation.  Being blind, molecules “feel” their way to neighboring molecules by putting out filaments in random directions.  A myosin motor on the neighbor captures the actin filament and pulls on it.  Surprisingly, it lets go after about 20 seconds.  Why?  “The assembly involves many episodes of attractions between pairs of nodes proceeding in parallel,” the article explains.  “Eventually the nodes form into a condensed contractile ring around the equator, ready to pinch the mother into two daughters at a later stage.”    The repeating rounds of “release and capture” appear essential to the assembly process of the contractile ring, they said.  Like pulling on a purse string, the circle tightens till the cells are pinched off and go their separate ways.    The scientists figured this out by comparing models with observations in an iterative fashion.  The work was done on “simple” yeast cells.  “Future work will involve testing the concepts learned from fission yeast in other cells to learn if the mechanism is universal,” said Thomas Pollard [Yale].  “Since other cells, including human cells, depend on similar proteins for cytokinesis, it is entirely possible that they use the same strategy.”  An abstract of the work appears on Science Express in advance of publication.  The following week it was published in Science.3Plant protection and bearing walls:  Dividing plant cells have a different problem.  They have cell walls.  What determines the exact point at where the wall between two newly-divided cells will form?  Shrink yourself down to the size of a plant cell in your imagination, and you can see the difficulty.  If you were the foreman of a group of construction workers making a house divide in two, how do you remember where the new wall between them is supposed to go?    Clive Lloyd and Henrik Buschmann (Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, John Innes Centre, Norwich UK) wrote about this predicament in Current Biology.4  What was mysterious is that a structure of microtubules known to form at the dividing plane apparently disassembles right before cell division.  How does the cell “memorize” the position of the plane where the future cell wall will form?  The trick is somewhat like using a chalk line.  The microtubules attract special proteins that adhere to the exact spot, forming a ring around the perimeter.  The microtubule scaffolding, no longer needed, is then dismantled.  After the chromosomes migrate and cell division completes, a plate of cell-wall proteins grows outward toward the chalk ring.  If you can imagine wallboard that grows into position from the center of the room, attracted to the chalk line, you get the idea.  The result is a neat, flat, parallel wall, subdividing the daughter cells into their own rooms.    Without these memory proteins, the scientists found, cell walls grew at abnormal positions.  Stay tuned, because this doesn’t explain everything about how plants determine the division plane.  It’s just an intriguing start.  “The search now continues for other components of the division ring and insights into the attractive influence they exert over the leading edge of the cytokinetic apparatus,” they said.One other recent cell biology paper, not directly about mitosis, is worthy of note.  All proteins in the cell need to fold properly before going into service.  Many of them use a “dressing room” called GroEL-GroES to avoid the hustle and bustle of the cytoplasm (05/05/2003, 06/07/2006).  A team of biochemists from Yale, Howard Hughes, U of Pennsylvania and Scripps, publishing in PNAS,5 asked why one particular protein really needs the dressing room when it can fold outside.    During the folding process, the amino acid chain seeks its “native” or correct fold.  If it works the first time or two, all is well; if it cannot fold in time, the chain can degenerate into a glob or “aggregate” that is either useless or dangerous and must be destroyed.  The team found that the GroEL “chaperone” is more likely to prevent aggregation if the chain goes down the wrong folding pathway.  In the safe, barrel-shaped chamber of the chaperone, the chain can more easily unfold and try again.  Outside, bad folds are less likely to get another chance.1.  Wallace F. Marshall, “Centriole Assembly: The Origin of Nine-ness,” Current Biology, Volume 17, Issue 24, 18 December 2007, Pages R1057-R1059.2.  Loncaronarek et al, “The centromere geometry essential for keeping mitosis error free is controlled by spindle forces,” Nature 450, 745-749 (29 November 2007) | doi:10.1038/nature06344.3.  Vavylonis et al, “Assembly Mechanism of the Contractile Ring for Cytokinesis by Fission Yeast,” Science, 4 January 2008: Vol. 319. no. 5859, pp. 97-100, DOI: 10.1126/science.1151086.4.  Clive Lloyd and Henrik Buschmann, “Plant Division: Remembering Where to Build the Wall,” Current Biology, Volume 17, Issue 24, 18 December 2007, Pages R1053-R1055.5.  Horst, Fenton, Englander, Wuthrich and Horwich, “Folding trajectories of human dihydrofolate reductase inside the GroEL-GroES chaperonin cavity and free in solution,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, published online before print December 19, 2007, 10.1073/pnas.0710042105.The views of cells you got in high school through a light microscope are about as useful for understanding what really goes on as trying to fathom a city from an airplane.  Only now, in our time, are the techniques improving to the point where we can enter the factories and offices at ground level to really begin to understand.    Our great joy and mission at Creation-Evolution Headlines is to bring these fascinating discoveries, hidden away in abstruse journals, to the public in a timely, understandable way, so that readers can wonder at the amazing design so clearly apparent at the tiniest basis of life – the cell – and realize how utterly bankrupt is the theory of evolution to explain them.    As is almost always the case, none of these papers dared to speculate about how these incredible mechanisms might have evolved by a blind, purposeless process of chance.  Darwin’s theory was written for a past era when the cell seemed as simple as a blob of jello.  Wave him and his theory good-bye as we fast-forward into the 21st century era of molecular machinery.  Biology of the future is reserved for those who appreciate and understand “engineering-design principles.”(Visited 18 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

Strange Large Mammals Make News

first_imgHere are unexpected facts about 4 large mammals.The unicorn:  A deer with an “extremely rare deformity” was reported by National Geographic.  Shot in Slovenia, the deer had deformed antlers that merged into a single, pointed “horn” on top of its head, that “looks like it just walked out of a fairy tale, but this deer with a single, unicorn-like antler is the real thing.”Saber-tooth deer:  Readers may be taken aback by a photo of a fanged deer on Science Daily.  The species was thought extinct (the last one was seen 60 years ago), but a living one turned up in the forested slopes of Afghanistan.  Males of the Kashmir musk deer use the fangs during rutting season like other species use antlers for battle.  Poachers have driven the species to the point of extinction by hunting for their scent glands, which are considered more valuable than gold.Hippoopo:  The “river horse” (hippopotamus) releases so much dung each day, it alters the ecology of rivers.  In Science Magazine, Elizabeth Pennisi relays how scientists are taking renewed interest in hippos, which are hard to study because of their aggressive behavior toward humans (they kill more people than do lions or elephants).  Of particular interest to one team is the realization that hippo poop moves massive amounts of carbon from land to waterways, nourishing a whole food web of insects, fish, and other animals.Moose facts:  On Live Science, Alina Bradford provided interesting facts about moose (plural, moose).  The largest members of the deer family, moose are also the tallest mammals in North America; males can stand 6.5 feet tall, with a six-foot spread of antlers.  They are cud-chewers with four-chambered stomachs.  Their fur is hollow, providing excellent insulation in the seasonally-snowed habitats they prefer.  Their hooves act like snowshoes and, despite their ungainly appearance and bulk, they are strong swimmers, able to swim over 12 miles at a time.Update 11/19/14: National Geographic answers the question, “How do moose get so big eating plants?”  All herbivores get more energy from their food, the answer goes, and they spend much of their time eating.  Moose in particular have an “absolutely phenomenal ability” to get the most out of what they eat, one biologist says.The adaptation of animals to their environments is striking.  Creationists allow for a fair amount of variability within created kinds, believing that genetic adaptations are built in to the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of each kind.  Today’s mammals probably do not resemble the original created kinds, or even those before the Flood.  The sorting out of traits between species adapted to specialized environments does not represent an increase in genetic information required by the evolutionary theory.  It’s actually a loss of information as each species retains only the genes and gene networks needed for its habitat.  The variations among dog and cat kinds are good examples.  Both evolutionists and creationists believe they descended from common ancestors of their own kinds (e.g., domestic dogs, dingoes and coyotes from an original wolf-like animal), but creationists deny that the huge increase in genetic innovation required to turn a mouse into a cat is possible or supported by evidence.  Many variations went extinct in the severely-altered habitat after the Flood.   Nevertheless, each species is a marvel of engineering design and warrants praise to its Creator and protection. (Visited 23 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more